MATERIALE DIDATTICO PER ALUNNI DSA
RUBRIC FOR AN AUTHENTIC TASK
Tematica: La Cittadinanza
Contenuto / percorso didattico proposto : Educazione alla Cittadinanza attraverso la Storia
Riconoscimento e accettazione dei diversi punti di vista.
Capacità di dialogo, confronto e ricerca di affinità con culture diverse.
Capacità di superamento degli stereotipi, dei pregiudizi, dei conflitti.
Ripensare alle finalità dell’insegnamento della storia, che devono essere la comprensione del passato per maturare una capacità critica su di sé e sul presente. Tale scopo non può essere raggiunto inserendo ulteriori contenuti alla cosiddetta storia generale, ma passando “dalla storia alle storie”,abbandonando una storia prevalentemente eurocentrica o nazionale, per avvicinarsi alla storia mondiale. Si lavorerà per problemi, selezionando quelli che possano far
comprendere agli studenti l’intreccio di differenti temporalità, le contemporaneità e le diverse periodizzazioni, in un continuo rimando al presente.
• Lavorare sulle migrazioni: spostamenti di popolazioni nel corso della storia, che hanno portato a incontri e scontri di culture e hanno influenzato la lingua, la musica, l’arte, la tecnologia, fino ad arrivare alle migrazioni del XX secolo.
• Individuare le risposte che gruppi umani, in contesti molto differenti, hanno dato ad alcuni problemi: produzione e scambio di beni, gestione del potere, difesa, divisione dei ruoli, modalità di comunicazione, ecc.
• Inserire moduli relativi alle storie “altre”, educando al decentramento del proprio punto di vista, in differenti peridi storici. Si confronteranno differenti organizzazioni politiche, sociali, economiche a livello sincronico e diacronico, in diverse civiltà del mondo.
• Analizzare il tema della colonizzazione, mettendo in evidenza il punto di vista dei popoli colonizzati, fino alla decolonizzazione e alle problematiche da essa causate nel mondo attuale.
• Approfondire il tema della Shoah e dei grandi genocidi del ‘900, mettendoli a confronto con altri crimini contro l’umanità perpetrati nel corso della storia e individuando unicità, somiglianze e differenze. Essi hanno rappresentato l’intenzione di distruggere, in tutto o in parte, un gruppo nazionale, etnico, razziale o religioso. La conoscenza di tali crimini e delle ragioni che li hanno determinati educa gli studenti a combattere il razzismo, l’antisemitismo e la discriminazione sociale.
Lettura e discussioni dei principali strumenti internazionali, in particolare:
− Dichiarazione Universale dei diritti umani
− Costituzione Italiana
− D.Lgs. 25 luglio 1998, n. 286. Testo unico delle disposizioni concernenti la disciplina dell’immigrazione e norme sulla
− condizione dello straniero
− Ministero dell’Istruzione, Università e Ricerca, Linee guida per l’accoglienza e l’integrazione degli alunni stranieri (MPI)
− Convenzione internazionale per l’eliminazione di ogni forma di discriminazione razziale (ICERD- 1965)
− Convenzione internazionale sulla protezione dei diritti di tutti i lavoratori migranti e dei membri delle loro famiglie (ICRMW – 1990)
− Patto sui diritti economici, sociali e politici 1966/1976
− Patto sui diritti civili e politici 1966/1976
− Dichiarazione sull’eliminazione di tutte le forme d’intolleranza e discriminazione fondate sulla religione e o il credo.
− Berlin Declaration on Interreligious Dialogue, 5 marzo 2008
− Declaration of Monserrat on Religions and the Building of Peace ,
10 aprile 2008.
− Convenzione sulla protezione e la promozione della diversità delle espressioni culturali, Adottata a Parigi, il 20 ottobre 2005, dalla Conferenza generale dell’UNESCO
− Conferenza regionale informale dei Ministri della Cultura su “La promozione del dialogo interculturale e il Libro Bianco del Consiglio d’Europa”, Belgrado, novembre 2007
− DIRETTIVA 2000/43/CE DEL CONSIGLIO del 29 giugno 2000 che attua il principio della parità di trattamento fra le persone
indipendentemente dalla razza e dall’origine etnica
MATERIALE PER L’ESAME FINALE DEL PRIMO CICLO DI STUDI
AUSTRALIA……WHAT TO SAY…
Full text of apology to indigenous Australians
on the occasion of the first sitting of Parliament, Canberra, A.C.T.
February 12, 2008 – 4:40PM
Today we honour the Indigenous peoples of this land, the oldest continuing
cultures in human history.
We reflect on their past mistreatment.
We reflect in particular on the mistreatment of those who were stolen
generations – this blemished chapter in our nation’s history.
The time has now come for the nation to turn a new page in
Australia’s history by righting the wrongs of the past and so moving
forward with confidence to the future.
We apologise for the laws and policies of successive Parliaments and
governments that have inflicted profound grief, suffering and loss on these
our fellow Australians.
We apologise especially for the removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
children from their families, their communities and their country.
For the pain, suffering and hurt of these stolen generations, their descendants
and for their families left behind, we say sorry.
To the mothers and the fathers, the brothers and the sisters, for the breaking up
of families and communities, we say sorry.
And for the indignity and degradation thus inflicted on a proud people and a
proud culture, we say sorry.
We the Parliament of Australia respectfully request that this apology
be received in the spirit in which it is offered as part of the healing of
For the future we take heart; resolving that this new page in the history of
our great continent can now be written.
We today take this first step by acknowledging the past and laying
claim to a future that embraces all Australians.
A future where this Parliament resolves that the injustices of the
past must never, never happen again.
A future where we harness the determination of all Australians,
and non-Indigenous, to close the gap that lies between us in life
expectancy, educational achievement and economic opportunity.
A future where we embrace the possibility of new solutions to enduring
problems where old approaches have failed.
A future based on mutual respect, mutual resolve and mutual
A future where all Australians, whatever their origins, are truly
equal partners, with equal opportunities and with an equal stake in shaping
the next chapter in the history of this great country, Australia.
Australian Aboriginal Children
The Stolen Generation
The Stolen Generation
|The policies that produced the Stolen Generation brought with it thousands of Aboriginal people that were deprived of their families, the loss of the love of the mothers as well as being deprived of an understanding of their rich cultural heritage. The Stolen Generation, in my humble view, remains one of the most shameful episodes in the history of Australia and one that demands a full apology from the leaders of this country to the Aboriginal people. Certainly, the possibility of a meaningful reconciliation between black and white Australia seems very unlikely to proceed in a meaningful manner until such an apology is forthcoming.|
The Stolen Generation is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, usually of mixed descent, who were forcefully removed from their families between approximately 1910 and (officially) 1969 by Australian Government agencies and church missions. This was done under various state acts of parliament, denying the rights of parents and making all Aboriginal children wards of the state. The policy typically involved the removal of children into internment camps, orphanages and other institutions.
Probably the origin of the practice of separating Aboriginal children from their parents lay in the desire to turn them into ‘useful’ citizens. The earliest Aboriginal institutions in Australia were church missions, where parents were at first allowed to live nearby. They were set up to teach the church virtues of obedience, thriftiness and hard work. Indeed, this was possibly the positive side of the missionaries’ work. They wanted to create an Aboriginal working class and present it to those whites of the colony who thought Aborigines were little better that animals. There was, however, a negative side which hardened when the missionaries were confronted by parents who wished to take their children away from the schools. The missionaries’ answer was to separate the children either by trickery or force.
By 1850 all the half-dozen missions which had come and gone in eastern Australia had, at one time or another, tried to raise Aboriginal children separated from their parents. Sadly, little is known about the children of these institutions other than their names and whether they physically survived the trauma of separation. Most probably, what they endured emotionally was not very different from the feelings of loss, anger bewilderment or grief experienced by their parents.
Apart from the desire to turn the Aboriginal children into “useful” citizens, the Christian missions also felt that by separating the children from their families and their traditional tribal values, then they could be more readily converted to Christianity. Thus the children were not only separated from their families but also from their ancient and traditional tribal culture.
At the governmental level, the thinking was indeed much more racial with differing motivation before and after the Second World War. Before the Second World War, the removal of the “half caste” children from their clans resulted from a perceived need to solve the Aboriginal problem once and for all. At this time, it was generally believed by those responsible for administering Aboriginal policy that the “full blood” would eventually die out while at the same time the number of ‘half castes” was, at least, in some states, starting to rise quite rapidly. Indeed, it was commonly argued that ‘half castes’ had inherited the worst human qualities of both Aborigine and Europeans. It was frequently asserted that that their presence undermined social cohesion and threatened the underlying fabric of the White Australia Policy. For these reasons, the solution of the ‘half caste’ problem was given a high priority.
The solutions proposed were certainly genocidal as they involved a complex program of eugenics involving, among other things, the effective prohibition of mating between “full bloods” and “half castes”, the systematic removal of the “half caste” children from their families and the encouragement of marriage between “half castes’ and whites. This program was referred to as ” breeding out the colour”.
After the Second World War the practice of Aboriginal child removal continued. The rationale of the policy makers had now changed, however, with reference to the idea of “breeding out the colour” no longer in vogue. The policy of the biological absorption of the ‘half caste’ was replaced by the policy of the cultural assimilation of the Aboriginal people as a whole. Certainly, while the policy of the removal of Aboriginal children remained racist, the genocidal dimension of the policy had now faded into history.
MULTIRACIAL SOCIETIES: LONDON AND NEW YORK
NEW YORK is considered a melting pot because, with time, generations of immigrants abandouned their language and traditions to become well assimilated into the American society. They melted together to for the American society, even if there is Little Italy and Chinatown, that are two areas where people coming from Italy and from China live.
The first Italian Immigrants arrived to America at the end of 19th century or at the beginning of the 20th century. They arrived in New York by ship and the first thing they saw was the Statue of Liberty. They were brought to Ellis Island where there was the immigration centre where immigrants were checked in order to see if they were ill or not. Only people who hadn’t any illness could enter New York, the others were sent again home or put in hospital for 40 days. That’s why many people couldn’t find their family alresdy enter the city.
In the past Ellis Island was a fort, then an arsenal, at the half of 19th century, it became the Immigration Centre and now it is a museum.
LONDON is considered a salad bowl. With time immigrants didn’t melt to form the English society ,didn’t abandoun their culture but they mantained their tradition and they live in harmony. that’s why in Britain diversity is a positive aspect and the English Government encourage the Immigrants to mantain their own tradition in the respect of the English laws.
MARTIN LUTHER KING
Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929-April 4, 1968) was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to Martin. His grandfather began the family’s long tenure as pastors of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, serving from 1914 to 1931; his father has served from then until the present, and from 1960 until his death Martin Luther acted as co-pastor. Martin Luther attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduating from high school at the age of fifteen; he received the B. A. degree in 1948 from Morehouse College, a distinguished Negro institution of Atlanta from which both his father and grandfather had graduated. After three years of theological study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected president of a predominantly white senior class, he was awarded the B.D. in 1951. With a fellowship won at Crozer, he enrolled in graduate studies at Boston University, completing his residence for the doctorate in 1953 and receiving the degree in 1955. In Boston he met and married Coretta Scott, a young woman of uncommon intellectual and artistic attainments. Two sons and two daughters were born into the family.
In 1954, Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Always a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race, King was, by this time, a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading organization of its kind in the nation. He was ready, then, early in December, 1955, to accept the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States, the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his presentation speech in honor of the laureate. The boycott lasted 382 days. On December 21, 1956, after the Supreme Court of the United States had declared unconstitutional the laws requiring segregation on buses, Negroes and whites rode the buses as equals. During these days of boycott, King was arrested, his home was bombed, he was subjected to personal abuse, but at the same time he emerged as a Negro leader of the first rank.
In 1957 he was elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization formed to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement. The ideals for this organization he took from Christianity; its operational techniques from Gandhi. In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles. In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”, a manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters; he directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, “l Have a Dream”, he conferred with President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson; he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at least four times; he was awarded five honorary degrees; was named Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963; and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure.
At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. When notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights movement.
On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee, where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city, he was assassinated.
Martin Luther King Day in United States
Martin Luther King Day marks the anniversary of the date of birth of the influential American civil right leader of the same name.
|Martin Luther King Day||English|
|Día de Martin Luther King||Spanish|
Martin Luther King Day 2012
Monday, January 16, 2012
Martin Luther King Day 2013
Monday, January 21, 2013
List of dates for other years
Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday held on the third Monday of January. It celebrates the life and achievements of Martin Luther King Jr., an influential American civil rights leader. He is most well-known for his campaigns to end racial segregation on public transport and for racial equality in the United States.
“The Stone Of Hope” memorial by master sculptor Lei Yixin was opened to the public in West Potomac Park, Washington DC, on August 22, 2011. ©iStockphoto.com/Camrocker
What do people do?
Martin Luther King Day is a relatively new federal holiday and there are few long standing traditions. It is seen as a day to promote equal rights for all Americans, regardless of their background. Some educational establishments mark the day by teaching their pupils or students about the work of Martin Luther King and the struggle against racial segregation and racism. In recent years, federal legislation has encouraged Americans to give some of their time on this day as volunteers in citizen action groups.
Martin Luther King Day, also known as Martin Luther King’s birthday and Martin Luther King Jr Day, is combined with other days in different states. For example, it is combined with Civil Rights Day in Arizona and New Hampshire, while it is observed together with Human Rights Day in Idaho. It is also a day that is combined with Robert E. Lee’s birthday in some states.
Martin Luther King was an important civil rights activist. He was a leader in the movement to end racial segregation in the United States. His most famous address was the “I Have A Dream” speech. He was an advocate of non-violent protest and became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He was assassinated in 1968.
In 1968, shortly after Martin Luther King died, a campaign was started for his birthday to become a holiday to honor him. After the first bill was introduced, trade unions lead the campaign for the federal holiday. It was endorsed in 1976. Following support from the musician Stevie Wonder with his single “Happy Birthday” and a petition with six million signatures, the bill became law in 1983. Martin Luther King Day was first observed in 1986, although it was not observed in all states until the year 2000.
QUESTIONS ABOUT MARTIN LUTHER KING
1) WHAT INFORMATION CAN YOU HAVE FROM THE NAME “ Martin Luther King”?
2 ) What was the segregation in the USA?
3 ) What’s the link between Rosa Parks and the mass-boycott of Montgomery bus company?
4) Why was the march on Washington DC in 1963 so important?
5) What was THE CIVIL RIGHT ACT?
6) What was the VOTING RIGHT ACT?
7) What were Martin Luther King’s methods of fight?
8) When did Martin Luther King win the Nobel Peace Prize?
9) What is M.L.King’s most famous speech and why?
10) When was he killed? And where?